Latest BRAVE-TAN Articles

Friendliness with People of Other Faiths

   Friendliness with People of Other Faiths Some Muslims think that they are not expected to be friendly or jovial with people of other faiths. As such, they stay distant from non-Muslim colleagues, neighbours, and others. Is a Muslim permitted to be friendly with people of other religions? How close […]

ISLAM PERMITS SOME INTERFAITH MARRIAGES

ISLAM PERMITS SOME INTERFAITH MARRIAGES Islam permits a Muslim man initiating and having a relationship as close and intimate as that of marriage with a Christian or Jewish woman in spite of the difference in faith. It is narrated that despite having married Muslim women previously, the third Caliph, Uthman […]

SECONDARY SOURCE: RA’I AL-SAHABI

SECONDARY SOURCE: RA’I AL-SAHABI Ra‎’i al-Sahabi is the reasoning or Opinion of a Companion of the Prophet (ﷺ). This is often discerned from a recorded saying or fatwa of a Companion (sahabi) which has not been contradicted by any other Companion’s opinion.[1] Some scholars use the following verses to support […]

SECONDARY SOURCE: IJMA’

SECONDARY SOURCE: IJMA’ There are several secondary sources of evidence or tools for Ijtihad (juristic reasoning and deduction of rulings). One is Ijma’: a consensus of opinion. This consensus could mean, to various scholars, either unanimous or majority opinion.[1] The majority of scholars view ijma’ as a “rational proof” and […]

SOURCES OF EVIDENCE in ISLAMIC LAW

Islamic Jurisprudence uses primary and secondary sources of evidence to formulate law. ‘Evidences’ (adillah) are the sources and procedures that a school of law (madhhab) endorses in order to derive rulings. These are also called legislative tools. When primary sources contain indefinite meanings, secondary sources and tools may be used […]

SHARI’AH RULINGS (Ahkam al-Shar‘iyyah)

SHARI’AH RULINGS (Ahkam al-Shar‘iyyah) One of the major objectives of Islamic teachings is to guide people towards what is good and right, and to protect them from what is bad, harmful and wrong. Laws and rules are therefore important in helping to identify right from wrong, and in guiding people […]

TERMINOLOGY IN THE EVOLUTION OF USUL AL-FIQH

In this section, we will review all the terms we have come across so far. How many can you remember?  Test yourself by covering the definitions on the right hand side. TERMS MEANING/EXPLANATION Generation of Sam’i Generation of “listeners”, eyewitnesses, Companions Generation of Jam’i Generation of “gatherers”, collectors (of hadith), […]

THE EVOLUTION OF USUL AL-FIQH

witnesses: This was the generation of the Companions of the Prophet (ﷺ) who saw, heard and lived with him. They witnessed the revelation and application of the Qur’an and Sunnah. They observed how he handled cases that were not responded to directly by revelation. They had the entire Qur’an transcribed. […]

WHAT IS USUL AL-FIQH?

WHAT IS USUL AL-FIQH? The literal meaning of usul al-fiqh is “roots” or “foundations” (usul) of Islamic jurisprudence and understanding (fiqh). It is the field that studies the proofs, bases, evidences (adillah) and sources of Islamic law. Without “roots”, there would be no deep understanding, grounding and no well-directed development […]

Ideals in Interfaith Relations: Hostility or Harmony?

Some believe that Islam prescribes that Muslims should be in a permanent state of enmity with people of other faiths, irrespective of their disposition towards Islam and Muslims. What is the ideal and normative relationship that Islam prescribes between Muslims and non-Muslims? Is it one of hostility or peace-building and […]

Addressing Non-Muslims with Insulting Terms – Kafir!

Addressing Non-Muslims with Insulting Terms – Kafir! Some Muslims call Christians and other non-Muslims by names such as Kafir (in Arabic), Arne (in Hausa), Kirdi (in Kanuri), etc., which these people regard as insulting. Since Islam is interested in peaceful coexistence, should Muslims call people of other faiths by these […]

Existence of Ahl al-Kitab (People of Earlier Revelation) Today

Existence of Ahl al-Kitab (People of Earlier Revelation) Today Some Muslims believe that modern-day Jews and Christians should not be regarded as “Ahl al-Kitab (People of Earlier Revelation)” because of the corruption of their scriptures and their belief in the Trinity, the sonship, divinity and crucifixion of Jesus, etc. If […]

IDENTITY AND NAMES

This section focuses on the identity of the People of Earlier Revelation and their continued existence. 1.   Identity of Ahl al-Kitab (People of Earlier Revelation) Some Muslims view only Jews and Christians as Ahl al-Kitab and therefore closer to Muslims than people of other faiths. Who are the Ahl al-Kitab […]

CONCEPT OF AL-WALA’ AND AL-BARA’

This section gives the definitions of the terms al-wala’ and al-bara’, as well as the various forms of both. Download the PDF version here 1.       Introduction to Al-Wala’ (loyalty) and Al-Bara’ (dissociation) Some Muslims understand interfaith relations as summarized and restricted by the notions of either one of “loyalty and […]