Latest BRAVE-TAN Articles

Making Religion the Scapegoat

Fair and equal principles should be used in evaluating any religion.  Otherwise, associating only Islam with violence is historically inaccurate in comparison to the record of some other faiths. Christians, for example, fought each other for centuries in Europe, and in the First World War (where about 18 million people […]

“Fundamentalists” and Newsmakers in the Media

The media frequently uses sensational imagery in ways that subtly but strongly reinforce the association of Muslims with violence. It is common to view the carnage caused by a group whose members are Muslim alongside images of Muslim worshippers or the sounds of a Muslim call to prayer. Through regular […]

Jihad: Against Aggression or Religious Diversity?

Some Muslims and non-Muslims have concluded that the concept of jihad in Islamic teachings is identical with the originally Christian concept of “Holy War” – unprovoked and violent aggression against people of other faiths simply because of intolerance to religious diversity, and for the purpose of spreading the faith. This […]

Forms of Jihad as Recognised by Classical and Contemporary Scholars

Muslim scholars use the term jihad to refer to various forms, levels and categorizations of enjoining right, forbidding wrong and striving in Allah’s cause (fi sabilillah) as used in the Qur’an and Sunnah. They have therefore come up with various ways of classifying the different forms of jihad that Muslims […]

What does Jihad Means

“Jihad” (from the verb “jahada”) on its own simply means “to struggle”, “to exert effort”, “to exert oneself”, “to toil” or “to strive”. Jihad simply means to strive hard or struggle in pursuit of a just and goodly cause in a manner that is in line with the guidance/way/path of […]

Introducing the word JIHAD

Some people regard the involvement of Muslims in various forms of warfare, conquests, violence, aggression, and terrorism as demonstrating that the concept of Jihad in Islam, by its very nature, undermines peaceful co-existence between Muslims and people of other faiths, especially in multi-religious societies. Is the Islamic concept of jihad […]

Does Islam Glorify war through Martyrdom?

Some people have questioned the promise of Allah in the Qur’an that those who are killed while engaged in military jihad (i.e. fighting in the cause of defending Islam, justice or resistance against evil and aggression) will go to Paradise. A martyr (a “shahid,” in Arabic) according to most religions […]

What Jihad in Islam Does Not Mean

Just as the word “crusade” may mean many things depending on the context in which it is used, so also does the Arabic word “Jihad” have many meanings depending on the context in which it is used. However, unlike “crusade”, the term or concept of “jihad” has never been understood […]

Should Muslim Work with a Non-Muslim Governments

The Qur’an (11:113) says, “And do not incline toward those who do wrong, lest the Fire should touch you, and you would have no protectors other than Allah, nor would you then be helped.” This verse is used by some Muslims to prohibit working with and in non-Islamic governments, as […]

Should Muslim Build Alliances with People of Other Faiths

The Quran verse 5:51 is understood by some Muslims to imply that it is not permissible for Muslims to become friends, companions or have alliances with Jews, Christians and other non-Muslims. As a result, they do not support, and may even be against interfaith relationships and cooperation. What is the […]

Brotherhood and Love with People of Other Faiths

Some Muslims object to using terms that denote affection for people of other faiths, and regard this as a form of unacceptable friendliness or association (wala’). Do the Qur’anic terms for close relationships exclude people of other faiths in their scope? And is it acceptable for a Muslim to describe […]

Can Muslims cooperate with people of other faith in defence and security services

Some Muslims regard it as prohibited for Muslims to collaborate with people of other faiths in fighting against Muslim terrorists or other criminals. They also regard it as forbidden for Muslims to join the military, law enforcement and security services of non-Muslim governments, especially if such engagement could result into […]

Muslim Countries and the United Nations (UN)

The United Nations (UN) is regarded by some Muslims as an evil (Taghut) “alliance of disbelieving nations”. They conclude that any nation that chooses to be a member of the UN is also to be regarded as Taghut (evil) and a Kufr (disbelieving) state. This conclusion is claimed to be […]

Should a Muslim attend non-Muslim Institutions

Some Muslims regard the registration of teachers, professionals, schools and organisations with the government as a sign of allegiance (wala) to an unislamic institution (or a “kufr system”) and regard it as prohibited. They also regard as prohibited, the registration for and owning of a National ID card, International Passport, […]

Can Muslims cooperate with people of other faiths

Some regard it as discouraged or unacceptable for Muslims to collaborate or work together with people of other faiths even in areas of common interest. Can Muslims cooperate with people of other faiths in governments, civil society organizations and other organized work towards social progress and justice? Is it permissible […]

Should a Muslim have business transactions with people of other faiths?

A number of Qur’anic verses prohibit supporting and strengthening non-Muslims against the interest of Muslims. Commerce and buying goods from non-Muslims is regarded by some as a part of allegiance (wala’) towards them and a means of strengthening them. Is it permissible to have business transactions with people of other […]

Sanctity of Every Human Life

Some think that the life of a Muslim is more sacred than that of a non-Muslim, and that Islamic law does not offer the same level of protection to people of other faiths as it does to Muslims. They believe or suspect that Islam has little respect for the lives […]

Should Muslim destroy non-Muslim place of worship

In recent times, places of worship, holy sites, and sacred spaces have been desecrated, bombed or destroyed, in the name of religion, in various conflicts. Sometimes, Muslims have been involved in destroying, but also in protecting churches, synagogues, etc.  Are Muslims allowed to destroy churches and other non-Muslim places of […]

Muslims as Minorities

The Prophet (p) and early Muslims lived as a minority in Mecca before and after the Prophet’s migration (Hijrah) to Medina when the Prophet (p) was about 53 years old. Some lived in Mecca under non-Muslim rule during the period of the Treaty of Hudaibiyyah. Others lived as minorities in […]

The Marrakesh Declaration

Muslims jurists and scholars have in different periods of Islamic history and in various parts of the world held some diverse rulings related to Non-Muslims (Ahkam Ahl al-Dhimmah). What guidelines and principles do Muslims today have for their more different, contemporary and rapidly changing and challenging contexts? What is the […]

Should Non-Muslims be allowed in to a Mosques

Some Muslims believe that non-Muslims are prohibited in Islam from entering any mosque. In some Muslim communities, however, mosques are open for educational, interfaith and tourism purposes; and some even have Open Day for people to come into the mosque and learn more about Islam.  Should non-Muslims be allowed into […]

Is it allowed for Muslim to Use the cutlery of others

Some Muslims have claimed that it is prohibited to the use of eating utensils, kitchenware and cutlery that have been used by non-Muslims. So while eating their food may be regarded as permissible, the prohibition of using their utensils has sometimes created serious awkwardness, uneasy embarrassment, humiliation or inconvenience for […]

Greetings for Religious Festivities – Merry Christmas, Happy Easter!

Many Muslims get goodwill gestures and greetings from various non-Muslims during Ramadan, Eid and other Islamic occasions. Some feel obliged to equally reciprocate such gestures by also greeting people of other faiths during their religious festivities and celebrations with greetings such as “Merry Christmas”, etc. Some Muslim scholars regard such […]

Saying Salams (Greetings of Peace) to People of Other Faiths

Most greetings and pleasantries are customary forms of expressing goodwill and facilitating introductions and conversations. They often set the tone for the quality of interpersonal relations and dialogue. The traditional Islamic greeting which Muslims are taught is to wish peace (salam) on others – “Assalamu alaykum” (meaning “peace be with […]

Imitating People of Other Faiths

Societies and civilizations have grown as result of sharing and copying from the good ideas and aspects of others. In an increasingly interdependent world, humility, curiosity and learning from others is essential to survival and progress. However, some Muslims prohibit ‘imitating’ or ‘copying’ people of other faiths and cultures in […]


Some Muslims regard interfaith inheritance as completely prohibited in Islam, and therefore sometimes deny themselves and others the benefits of inheritance. This has sometimes contributed to frustrations and tensions when non-Muslim family members are denied inheritance they believe is their right. Some Muslims also feel deprived and disadvantaged when they […]